How to Apply for Citizenship Online Step by Step (USCIS Form N400)

Applying for citizenship in the United States is a significant milestone for many immigrants. With the advancement of technology, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has made it convenient by allowing applicants to submit Form N400 online. 

If you’re on the brink of this life-changing event, this guide will walk you through the online application process, step by step.

A Hispanic woman filling out an 'USCIS Form N400'

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1. Determine Your Eligibility:

Before diving into the application, it’s essential to ascertain your eligibility. The primary requirements include:

Watercolor painting woman typing on a sleek black laptop

  • Residency: You should have been a permanent resident (Green Card holder) for at least five years. If you’re married to a U.S. citizen, this duration reduces to three years.

  • Presence: Be physically present in the U.S. for at least 30 months out of the last five years.

  • Good Moral Character: You must demonstrate good moral character, devoid of any severe criminal records.

Example: Meet Maria, originally from Mexico, who has been living in the U.S. for six years. She has been a Green Card holder for five years and has spent 32 months out of those five years in the country. Her criminal record is clean. Maria is eligible to apply for citizenship.

2. Prepare Necessary Documents:

Before starting the online process, gather all necessary documents. This ensures a smoother application process.

List of Essential Documents:

  • Green Card (front and back)
  • Travel records (especially if you’ve traveled outside the U.S. in the last five years)
  • Employment history
  • Marital history (if applicable)
  • Records of any criminal violations

3. Create a USCIS Account:

To apply online, you’ll need a USCIS online account.

Steps to Create an Account:

  1. Visit the USCIS website.
  2. Click on ‘Log in’ and then ‘Create an Account’.
  3. Provide the necessary details and set up security questions.

4. Fill Out Form N400:

With your documents at hand and your USCIS account ready, it’s time to tackle Form N400.

  • Log into your account.
  • Locate and select Form N400.
  • Answer each section meticulously. If unsure about any section, seek legal advice.

Note: Always be truthful in your responses. False information can lead to denial of citizenship or even deportation.

5. Pay the Application Fee:

The application isn’t complete without the required fee. As of the last update, the fee stands at $725, which includes the application cost and the biometrics fee. Payment can be made using a credit card, debit card, or through a U.S. bank account.

Table: Fee Breakdown


6. Review and Submit:

Before hitting the submit button:

  • Double-check all the provided information.
  • Ensure all required documents are attached.
  • Confirm payment details.

Once you’re confident everything is in order, submit your application.

7. Await Biometrics Appointment:

After submitting, USCIS will schedule a biometrics appointment. Here, they’ll take your fingerprints, photo, and signature. This data aids in background checks and the creation of your citizenship document.

Example: John, from the UK, applied for his citizenship online. After submission, he received a biometrics appointment in two weeks at his nearest USCIS center.

8. Prepare for the Interview and Exam:

Once your background checks are clear, USCIS will schedule an interview. You’ll also be tested on your English proficiency and knowledge of U.S. government and history.

Tip: There are numerous online resources, including mock tests, to help you prepare.

9. Await the Decision:

Post-interview, USCIS will mail you their decision. If approved, congratulations! You’ll soon be called for the oath-taking ceremony, marking your official journey as a U.S. citizen.

In Conclusion:

The online application process for U.S. citizenship, using Form N400, is designed to be user-friendly. However, always approach each step with care and precision. While the process might seem lengthy, the end result—becoming a U.S. citizen—is well worth the effort.

Remember, when in doubt, seeking legal advice can be beneficial. Best of luck on your path to U.S. citizenship!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What is USCIS Form N400?

Answer: USCIS Form N400 is the official application form used by permanent residents (Green Card holders) to apply for U.S. citizenship through naturalization.

Q: How long do I need to have been a permanent resident before applying?

Answer: Generally, you should have been a permanent resident for at least five years. However, if you’re married to a U.S. citizen, the duration reduces to three years.

Q: Are there any fees associated with the N400 application?

Answer: Yes, the total fee for submitting Form N400 is $725. This includes a $640 application fee and an $85 biometrics fee.

Q: What documents do I need to gather before applying online?

Answer: Essential documents include your Green Card (front and back), travel records, employment history, marital history (if applicable), and any records of criminal violations.

Q: How does the biometrics appointment work?

Answer: After submitting your application, USCIS will schedule a biometrics appointment. Here, they will take your fingerprints, photo, and signature for background checks and for your citizenship document.

Q: What is the purpose of the citizenship interview and exam?

Answer: The interview assesses your application and commitment to the U.S., while the exam tests your English proficiency and your knowledge of U.S. government and history.

Q: How can I prepare for the citizenship test?

Answer: There are numerous online resources, including study guides and mock tests, to help you prepare. USCIS also provides official materials for preparation.

Q: What happens after the interview?

Answer: After the interview, you will receive a decision from USCIS via mail. If approved, you’ll be invited to an oath-taking ceremony, marking your official start as a U.S. citizen.

Q: Can I seek legal advice during the application process?

Answer: Absolutely. If at any point you’re unsure or need clarity, seeking advice from an immigration attorney or a legal expert can be beneficial.

Q: What should I do if my application is denied?

Answer: If your application is denied, USCIS will provide reasons for the denial. You can either address the issues mentioned and reapply or, in some cases, appeal the decision.